In addition to the terpenes found in medical cannabis strains, these essential oils are also produced and found in a large array of other plants. Each terpene contributes to the plant’s aroma, texture and flavour, albeit some more than others. Each strain contains its own specific range of terpenes, which add their own unique properties. Not only do they modify the effects of THC and other cannabinoids, but they have also been shown to increase a strain’s medicinal properties.
While there are many more terpenes than the ones listed below, some of the most prominent and common terpenes in cannabis strains include the following:
Caryophylline: Common in two main forms, beta caryophyllene, also commonly seen as β-Caryophyllene or abbreviated to BCP, and trans-caryophyllene or TC. Aside from cannabis, this terpene can be found in clove, black pepper and rosemary.
Humulene: Found naturally in pine, ginger, hops and coriander, this terpene is known for its earthy, woody aroma and flavour.
Limonene: Known for its citrus aroma and flavour, this terpene is found in high concentrations in citrus fruit rinds.
Linalool: This terpene is found in many flowers and spice plants, which explains its floral scent.
Myrcene: The smallest of all terpenes and yet the most abundant in cannabis, Mycene can be found in mangoes, hops and basil. It produces a spicy, balsamic flavour and aroma.
Pinene: A terpene found primarily in cannabis and conifers, which smells strongly of pine.
For more information on terpenes, their effects and structure, please see: Russo, Ethan B. “Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.” British Journal of Pharmacology 163.7 (2011): 1344-1364. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946/
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