Terpenes are organic compounds produced by a wide array of plants, including cannabis, that contribute heavily to the plant’s aroma, texture and flavour. Each cannabis strain contains its own specific range of terpenes. Not only do they modify the effects of THC and other cannabinoids, but these essential oils have been shown to increase a strain’s medicinal properties.
Some of the most prominent and common terpenes in cannabis strains include the following:
Caryophelline: Common in two main forms, beta caryophyllene, also commonly seen as β-Caryophyllene or abbreviated to BCP, and trans-caryophyllene or TC. Aside from cannabis, this terpene can be found in clove, black pepper and rosemary.
Humulene: Found naturally in pine, ginger, hops and coriander, this terpene is known for its earthy, woody aroma and flavour.
Limonene: Known for its citrus aroma and flavour, this terpene is found in high concentrations in citrus fruit rinds.
Linalool: This terpene is found in many flowers and spice plants, which explains its floral scent.
Myrcene: The smallest of all terpenes and yet the most abundant in cannabis, Mycene can be found in mangoes, hops and basil. It produces a spicy, balsamic flavour and aroma.
Pinene: A terpene found primarily in cannabis and conifers, which smells strongly of pine.
For more information on terpenes, please see: Russo, Ethan B. “Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.” British Journal of Pharmacology 163.7 (2011): 1344-1364. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165946/